Tesis profesional presentada por Roberto Carlos Castillo Bautista

Licenciatura en Relaciones Internacionales. Departamento de Relaciones Internacionales y Ciencias Políticas. Escuela de Ciencias Sociales, Artes y Humanidades, Universidad de las Américas Puebla.

Jurado Calificador

Presidente: Dr. Jean Meyer Barth
Vocal y Director: Dr. David Mena Alemán
Secretario: Lic. Diana Ibáñez Tirado

Cholula, Puebla, México a 8 de mayo de 2006.


As a consequence of a series of unfortunate events that began with the coup d´état against Mikhail Gorbachev on August 1991, Tajikistan, the poorest of the Soviet republics, declared its independence from the Soviet Union on September 9th 1991. The Tajik Supreme Soviet was the first of the Central Asian authorities to promulgate independence from Moscow. Following the Tajik example, other Central Asian republics declared their independence before the end of that year.

Tajikistan has experienced two different types of political establishment throughout its existence. Neither was formed in a natural fashion as a result of historical political evolution. From the stateless communities to the construction of the Tajik state this country lacked certain evolutionary processes that in other cases have contributed to democratic political developments. After independence, conditioning aspects of the Soviet heritage, such as the clanic structure, withhold the Tajik path toward a course of peaceful and democratic reform.

After the civil war and the national reconciliation process, the ruling coalition took several measures towards consolidating the government and healing the profound wounds left by the civil strife. Moreover, the gradual strengthening of the regime and its expansion to distant regions of the republic by means of arranging new and particularized deals with regional bosses was the key aim of Rakhmonov´s administration. Crucial to the attainment of this goal was the implementation of the peace agreements. These served as a transitional program that was mainly based on the commitment to lock up the opposition within the government. However, the failure to establish and define the basic criteria of this commitment coupled with the enduring weaknesses of the Tajik state and economy resulted in the malfunction of the power-sharing reforms.

Keywords: Tajikistan, Central Asia, Clan-based politics, Transition, Democratic reform.

Table of content

Dedicatorias (archivo pdf, 13 kb)

Author´s note (archivo pdf, 14 kb)

Introduction (archivo pdf, 45 kb)

Capítulo 1. Tajikistan overview: a general perspective (archivo pdf, 989 kb)

  • 1.1 Population and Geographical characteristics
  • 1.2 Pre-modern History
  • 1.3 Education
  • 1.4 Religion
  • 1.5 Economy

Capítulo 2. From the stateless communities to post-communist independence (archivo pdf, 278 kb)

  • 2.1 Czarist era (1865-1917)
  • 2.2 The communist times (1917-1991)
  • 2.3 Political scenario immediately after independence: the prelude to conflict
  • 2.4 Civil War

Capítulo 3. The Construction of the new hegemony (archivo pdf, 314 kb)

  • 3.1 Concentrating power
  • 3.2 Political evolution, Civil Society and Media
  • 3.3 Constitutional Framework
  • 3.4 Party System and Electoral Processes
  • 3.5 Governance, Corruption and Poverty
  • 3.6 International Arena

Capítulo 4. Concluding Remarks (archivo pdf, 36 kb)

Referencias (archivo pdf, 42 kb)

Castillo Bautista, R. C. 2006. Tajikistan: informal politics in the consolidation of a new hegemony. Tesis Licenciatura. Relaciones Internacionales. Departamento de Relaciones Internacionales y Ciencias Políticas, Escuela de Ciencias Sociales, Artes y Humanidades, Universidad de las Américas Puebla. Mayo. Derechos Reservados © 2006.